Desarrollan una herramienta para optimizar la producción conjunta de energía eólica y solar

Las energías renovables, en particular la eólica y solar, están llamadas a desempeñar un papel fundamental en la transición hacia sistemas energéticos descarbonizados para frenar el cambio climático. Sin embargo, su integración en los planes de desarrollo se ve comprometida debido a la intermitencia de su producción, sujeta a la variabilidad de las condiciones atmosféricas. | 07/07/2023 13:13
Para hacer frente a este reto, un estudio internacional liderado por investigadores de la Universidad de Murcia y de la Plataforma Temática Interdisciplinar (PTI) Clima y Servicios Climáticos del CSIC propone una estrategia, basada en el análisis de la variabilidad natural de los recursos, para planificar un despliegue de instalaciones eólicas y solares fotovoltaicas que optimice su complementariedad espacio-temporal y minimice las fluctuaciones de la producción conjunta de ambas energías.

El resultado de la investigación se ha llevado a la práctica con la creación de una herramienta de libre acceso denominada Climax. Se trata de un modelo que identifica regiones con una variabilidad temporal similar de ambos recursos (solar y eólico) y determina las cuotas óptimas de cada tecnología en dichas regiones. Es decir, busca aquellos lugares donde las energías solar y eólica puedan ser aprovechadas al máximo desde una perspectiva no individual, sino conjunta. Según los investigadores, una ubicación óptima de las instalaciones de cada tecnología reduciría hasta un 60 % las anomalías mensuales de la producción total de electricidad eólica y solar.

A pesar del carácter experimental y piloto de la aplicación, el mero desarrollo de esta herramienta supone un avance sustancial respecto a trabajos anteriores que aportaban investigaciones estrictamente académicas sobre la complementariedad de ambas energías. “Presentamos una nueva metodología basada en la ciencia del clima para reducir la intermitencia indeseada de la generación conjunta de solar y eólica, con el objetivo de ayudar a planificar el despliegue de nuevas unidades de producción renovable”, explican los investigadores en el estudio publicado en la revista Earth’s Future.

En este sentido, los investigadores consideran que las regiones europeas incluidas en el análisis deberían hacer esfuerzos en sus políticas energéticas hacia el despliegue de más instalaciones solares con el fin de reducir la volatilidad mes a mes de la producción combinada eólica-solar. “Los beneficios serían enormes, sobre todo para regiones del sur de Europa y a nivel continental”, concluyen.

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